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Sword Assay for Human IL-33

IL-33 is a nuclear cytokine that is part of the innate immune response mechanism, and is frequently linked to inflammation in diseases such as asthma, Crohn’s disease, and atopic dermatitis. Interaction between IL-33 and the ST2-1RAcP receptor1 activates signaling pathways in several innate immune lymphoid cells, including natural killer, Th2, basophils, and eosinophils as a means of clearing out invading microorganisms.2,3

IL-33 is constitutively expressed in the cell nuclei of normal healthy individuals.4 Damage to the cell causes the release of IL-33 into the extracellular matrix which then signals the beginning of the inflammatory process.5 As a result, IL-33 functions as an alarmin and subsequently has been identified as a strong biomarker candidate for inflammation.

This Sword Assay has been optimized for use with the R&D Systems Quantikine ELISA for Human IL-33 (Catalog No. D3300). This protocol allows the user to use 100 μL sample sizes.

Assay Type:

Sandwich ELISA

Product #:


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  1. Schmitz J, et al.: IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines. Immunity 2005, 23:479-90.
  2. Cayrol C, Girard JP: IL-33: an alarmin cytokine with crucial roles in innate immunity, inflammation and allergy. Current opinion in immunology 2014, 31:31-7.
  3. Liew FY, et al.: Disease-associated functions of IL-33: the new kid in the IL-1 family. Nature reviews Immunology 2010, 10:103-10.
  4. Moussion C, et al.: The IL-1-like cytokine IL-33 is constitutively expressed in the nucleus of endothelial cells and epithelial cells in vivo: a novel ‘alarmin’? PloS one 2008, 3:e3331.
  5. Hardman CS, et al.: IL-33 citrine reporter mice reveal the temporal and spatial expression of IL-33 during allergic lung inflammation. European journal of immunology 2013, 43:488-98.

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