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Sword Assay for Human TNF-alpha

TNFα is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine produced predominantly by macrophages, and serves a variety of functions; possessing both growth stimulating and growth inhibitory processes, as well as having self-regulatory properties.1 TNFα interacts with receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2, and these are expressed differently on cells and tissues resulting in signaling cascades.

This can lead to a range of responses including: cell death, survival, differentiation, proliferation, and migration.2 TNFα cannot usually be detected in healthy individuals; however, elevated serum and tissue levels are found in inflammatory and infectious conditions, and serum levels correlate to the severity of infections.2 Lack of regulation of TNFα production has been implicated in a variety diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and Crohn’s disease.2-4

This Sword Assay has been optimized for use with the R&D Systems DuoSet ELISA for Human TNFα (DY210 or DY210-05).

Assay Type:

Sandwich ELISA

Product #:


See the Sword Performance Difference


  1. Idriss HT, Naismith JH: TNF alpha and the TNF receptor superfamily: structure-function relationship(s). Microsc Res Tech 2000, 50:184-95.
  2. Van Herreweghe F, et al.: Tumor necrosis factor-mediated cell death: to break or to burst, that’s the question. Cell Mol Life Sci 2010, 67:1567-79.
  3. Chen DY, et al.: Proinflammatory cytokine profiles of patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with younger-onset disease. Gerontology 2009, 55:250-8.
  4. Hehlgans T, Pfeffer K: The intriguing biology of the tumour necrosis factor/tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily: players, rules and the games. Immunology 2005, 115:1-20.

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